Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (BA)


Human Development and Family Science

First Advisor

Abraham Hwang


TCKs are individuals who are born to parents of one culture, but raised in another culture. For these students, the transition to college often involves crucial cross-cultural and identity issues, in addition to other challenges faced by college students. The primary objective of this study was to discover factors affecting TCK adjustment to college. The secondary objective was to determine what colleges can do to support and enable positive TCKs adjustment. Self-ascribed · identity, reverse culture shock, host country, length of time overseas, age at reentry and year in college were found to be the strongest influencers of adjustment. Ethnomethodology Theory, Role Theory and Symbolic Interaction Theory were all identified as theories of orientation for understanding TCKs adjustment to college. Relevant research and implications are discussed .


Approved for Honors in the Department of Human Development and Family Science, Messiah College, 2005.