Date of Award


Document Type



History, Politics and International Relations


After decades of one-party rule, violent unrest and international pressure finally restored multiparty politics in Kenya in the 1990's. Democratic hopes culminated with the end of forty years of political dominance by the Kenya African National Union (KANU) as Mwai Kibaki of the National Rainbow Coalition took office in the 2002 general election. However, one successful election does not necessarily ensure future open, peaceful, and fair elections. During the subsequent elections in December 2007, violence erupted when Kibaki was declared the winner despite widespread fraud allegations (BBC News Kenya 2008).