Date of Award


Document Type

Project Open Access


Introduction & Purpose

Chronic low back pain is among the leading causes of disability globally and continues to have a high reoccurrence rate within the first year of treatment.

The treatment cost of low back pain has become an increased burden on the healthcare system and patients at an estimated $100 billion per year.

With incidence and economic burden of LBP on the rise, physical therapy has been shown to be an efficient and costeffective treatment.

Previous research shows improvements to pain and function following HVLA mobilization and exercise in short-term outcomes (< 3 months), but there is limited evidence showing the long-term effects (> 6 months.)

PICO: In adults with chronic low back pain, is HVLA mobilization combined with exercise more effective than exercise alone to improve pain and function in the longterm?