Date of Award

Spring 2023

Document Type

Project Open Access



First Advisor

Roxanne Dixon

Second Advisor

Rachel Cornacchio


There is a wealth of information about critical thinking and metacognition in the context of general education, yet there are still relatively few research studies and articles written about metacognition and critical thinking in the context of secondary performing ensembles. Teaching for metacognition and critical thinking can lead students toward independent musicianship as they learn to transfer knowledge to new learning contexts. This paper will provide a brief summary of the literature about metacognition in general education, and as it applies specifically to the music context. It will examine strategies directors can use which will promote metacognitive and critical thinking in the context of secondary performing ensembles including: intentional questioning, modeling thought processes, musical decision-making, recording, cognitive dissonance, warmups, audiation, critical listening, collective metacognition, reflection forms, and goal setting. Music educators can also benefit from the practice of personal reflection about their own teaching.


Created in: MUED 680: Music Education Capstone

Included in

Music Commons