Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies From Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

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Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn. AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, SD = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Tan, M., Reich, J., Hart, L., Thuma, P. E., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2014). Examining the specific effects of context on adaptive behavior and achievement in a rural african community: Six case studies from rural areas of southern province, zambia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(2), 271–282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1487-y