Title

Cattle, Other Domestic Animal Ownership, and Distance Between Dwelling Structures Are Associated With Reduced Risk of Recurrent Plasmodium Falciparum Infection in Southern Zambia

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2009

Abstract

Objectives To examine the associations between household Plasmodium falciparum infection and a number of factors including domestic animal ownership, potential mosquito breeding sites, indoor darkness, density of people, distance between dwelling structures, and insecticide-treated bed net use. Methods Analyses were based on data collected from a household survey conducted in Macha, Zambia. Thirty-four households with recurrent malaria infection in 2005-2008 were selected as case households and compared with 37 control households with no malaria infection randomly selected from the same geographic area. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with household P. falciparum infection. Results In multivariate analysis, cattle ownership was associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum infection (adjusted odds ratio = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.05-0.69), as was increased distance between dwelling structures (aOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.07-0.98). Ownership of the highest category of cattle, goats, dogs, or cats dramatically reduced the risk of P. falciparum infection (aOR = 0.13; 95% CI = 0.03-0.56). Conclusion Domestic animal, in particular cattle, ownership and greater distance between dwelling structures were associated with reduced risk of recurrent P. falciparum infection at the household level. These factors should be further investigated as supplemental measures for malaria control in rural African settings. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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