Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth
Background: Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity after vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. Methods: This cross-sectional study was nested within 2 ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia. Dried blood spot cards from youth (5-15 years) in these studies from 2009 to 2013 were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses. HIV-uninfected youth, HIV-infected treatment-naive youth and HIV-infected youth receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared. Results: A total of 617 HIV-uninfected, 144 HIV-infected treatment-naive and 128 HIV-infected youth receiving ART were included in this study. The proportion seropositive for measles virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (92.5%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (74.1%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (71.9%). No differences by age were observed. The proportion seropositive for rubella virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (54.7%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (41.7%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (49.6%), with increases observed by age for all groups. Conclusions: Measles seroprevalence was lower among HIV-infected than uninfected youth, consistent with waning immunity after measles vaccination. HIV-infected youth would benefit from revaccination. Half of all youth in rural Zambia were susceptible to rubella and may need targeting for catch-up rubella campaigns when measles-rubella vaccine is introduced. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sutcliffe, C. G.; Searle, K.; Matakala, H. K.; Greenman, M. P.; Rainwater-Lovett, K.; Thuma, Philip; and Moss, W. J., "Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth" (2017). Biology Educator Scholarship. 109.
Sutcliffe, C. G., Searle, K., Matakala, H. K., Greenman, M. P., Rainwater-Lovett, K., Thuma, P. E., & Moss, W. J. (2017). Measles and rubella seroprevalence among hiv–infected and uninfected zambian youth: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 36(3), 301–306. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001422