Date of Award

Spring 2022

Document Type

Project Open Access


• Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) encompasses varying degrees of pathologies associated with dysfunction, pain, and derangement of the surrounding musculature of the joint and muscles of mastication.

• Major source of chronic orofacial pain that interferes in activities of daily living and can lead to psychological factors such as anxiety, depression, and social factors

• Anatomical positioning of the TMJ with the cervical spine has led researchers towards investigating association between the two regions.

• Associated with headaches, ear-aches, and cervical posture.

• Manipulations to the spine have been widely accepted as a treatment intervention for decreasing pain and improving function/mobility in multiple areas of the body.

• If regional interdependence exists between the two regions, then cervical spine mobilization and exercise may be able to provide symptomatic relief.

Purpose: To investigate the effects on the reduction of pain and MMO using cervical spine mobilization and exercise compared to only using manual therapy for temporomandibular joint pain.


This project was part of the Doctor of Physical Therapy program at Messiah University, Mechanicsburg, PA.