Carbon nitride thin films deposited by dc unbalanced magnetron sputtering have been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The XPS data show that N 1s binding states depend on substrate temperature (Ts). By comparison with the Raman spectra, N 1s binding states are assigned in which nitrogen atoms are mainly bound to sp2 and sp3 carbon atoms at Ts = 100°C, whereas at Ts = 500°C nitrogen atoms are mainly bonded to sp2, sp3 and sp1 carbon atoms.
Hellgren, Niklas; Zheng, Wei Tao; Xing, Ke Zhao; Lögdlund, Michael; Johansson, Åsa A.; Gelivs, U; Salaneck, William R.; and Sundgren, Jan Eric, "Nitrogen 1s Electron Binding Energy Assignment in Carbon Nitride Thin Films with Different Structures" (1997). Mathematics, Physics, and Statistics Educator Scholarship. 1.