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According to the 1900 census, just over 50,000 people called Harrisburg their home. Of these 50,000 people, 4,435 lived in the Old Eighth Ward. The eighth ward was disproportionately occupied by African-American residents. A total of 1,507 African Americans lived in the Old Eighth Ward, which comprised about 34% of the population of this ward. This percentage is quite large in comparison to other wards in the city. Second to the eighth ward, the ward with the largest African American population was the second ward; African Americans comprising about 11% of the population. In contrast, the tenth ward was the least diverse, with African Americans comprising only .5% of the total population. The average population percentage of African Americans in all the wards of the city except the Eighth Ward was only about 6%, which is a startling contrast to the 34% of African American residents in the Eighth Ward. The Old Eighth Ward was also home to many immigrants. 359 people, or about 8% of citizens of the Old Eighth Ward were born outside of this county. Also, an additional 359 citizens or 8% had both parents who were born outside of this country, but they themselves were born in the US, mostly in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. 859 people had just one parent born outside of this country. Many people of the Old Eighth Ward had strong a strong cultural heritage to another geographic location, which created a uniquely diverse community in the heart of the capital city. Statistically, the Old Eighth Ward was the most diverse neighborhood in the city of Harrisburg, with a high percentage of African American residents and many first or second generation immigrants from all over the world who made their home in the Old Eighth Ward of Harrisburg.
However, this diverse community was greatly affected by the Capitol Park extension. Many people were displaced and forced to relocate to another part of the city, as homes and businesses were torn down to make room for this expanded capitol. About twenty-nine acres, from North Street to Walnut Street were within the land that was taken to extend the capitol complex. Within these twenty nine acres were many homes filled with stories and fond memories of childhood. One story that Wert captures in his article “The Passing of the Old Eighth,” details an encounter between the current and former owner on a house on State Street that was to be demolished. A woman appeared at the door of her former home, and the current owner graciously allowed this woman to tearfully relive her childhood memories in a house that was a home to her years prior. Another story that Wert tells is of a rich man, who earned a lot of money through silver mines, who built his mother a mansion which would have been worth about $10,00 dollars at the time. Wert sought to perpetuate this story of a son’s kindness to his mother by making sure this story was told.
Boarding Houses were also an important lodging in the Old Eighth Ward. However, most boarding houses were seen as a place of vice where alcohol was prominent. Prior to the Capitol Park Extension, Theodore Frye, an African American man, owned a hotel on State Street in the Eighth Ward. In 1913, there were accusations of underage drinking at Frye’s hotel, and by 1917, Frye’s liquor license was rejected, and this was the only liquor license of a person of color in the Old Eighth Ward. Before this in 1916, Frye attempted to move his property in order to protect it from the Capitol Park Extension, but the reputation of “vice” at his boarding house, which was partially influenced by his race, caused opposition to arise from the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Boarding houses were not only a place with a reputation of vice and liquor. Temperance hotels were founded throughout the Eighth Ward, which were alcohol-free hotels which were intended to be safer for women and children to stay at during their travels. The Women’s Christian Organization was responsible for founding some of these “temperance hotels.” Boarding houses and temperance hotels were an important part of the Old Eighth Ward, and the reputation of boarding houses
Hannah Braxton Jones was born to Joseph and Maria Braxton in Virginia around 1855. When Hannah was about eleven years old, she moved to the Old Eighth Ward of Harrisburg with her family in 1866. After moving to Harrisburg, much of Hannah’s early life revolved around her father’s church, Second Baptist Church, which was founded by Joseph Braxton upon his arrival to Harrisburg. At the time of her father’s death, Second Baptist Church had grown from about six members at its founding to nearly one hundred and seventy five members. In her early twenties, prior to 1880, Hannah married George Jones, and the two remained in Harrisburg and had two children, James and Mary Jones in 1875 and 1878. During this time, Hannah’s husband, George, was a reverend at Second Baptist Church, and Hannah herself was heavily involved in the church through leading women’s Bible studies, performing readings during the service, and contributing to the music. In 1881, George Jones had stepped down as head pastor of Second Baptist Church, but throughout the next ten years, he spoke frequently as a guest speaker. However, by 1900, George Jones had died, leaving Hannah Braxton a widower. Also, during this time Hannah Braxton Jones became one of the few women of color in the city at this time to purchase a house with only her name on the deed. Until her death in 1928, Hanah Jones remained active in her church and in her community, and she taught music in Harrisburg. According to her obituary, Hannah was survived by her two children, six grandchildren, and even two great-grandchildren.
Harrisburg, Messiah College, Messiah University, Pennsylvania, reform, women
American Studies | United States History | Urban Studies and Planning
Hermeling, Drew and Digital Harrisburg, "Making a Home in the Old Eighth Ward - With Biography of Hannah Braxton Jones" (2019). Look Up, Look Out. 8.