Date of Award
Dr. Crystal Downing
In the opening chapter of The Madwoman in the Attic, authors Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar discuss the idea of the pen as a metaphorical penis: because the male generates life itself and the female merely bears that male-generated life, the male also assumes the right to generate art and writing, while the female is assumed to be incapable of generating anything worthwhile. Gilbert and Gubar take this idea a step further, asserting that in "fathering" the nineteenth-century texts, men subsequently govern and define the roles and standards for women. They are the ones defining womanhood-and part of that definition includes an inability to create (3-11 ).
Cunningham, Kimi, "'Use Desdemona Well': Orson Welles's and Oliver Parker's Filmic Interpretations of Shakespeare's Othello" (2001). Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate. 235.