School Effects on Non-Verbal Intelligence and Nutritional Status in Rural Zambia
This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher's teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Hein, S.; Tan, M.; Reich, J.; Thuma, Philip; and Grigorenko, E. L., "School Effects on Non-Verbal Intelligence and Nutritional Status in Rural Zambia" (2016). Biology Educator Scholarship. 77.
Hein, S., Tan, M., Reich, J., Thuma, P. E., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2016). School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia. Learning and Individual Differences, 46, 25–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.04.004