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Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum are specific biomarkers that can be used to monitor parasite exposure over broader time frames than microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, or molecular assays. Consequently, seroprevalence surveys can assist with monitoring the impact of malaria control interventions, particularly in the final stages of elimination, when parasite incidence is low. The protein array format to measure antibodies to diverse P. falciparum antigens requires only small sample volumes and is high throughput, permitting the monitoring of malaria transmission on large spatial and temporal scales. We expanded the use of a protein microarray to assess malaria transmission in settings beyond those with a low malaria incidence. Antibody responses in children and adults were profiled, using a P. falciparum protein microarray, through community-based surveys in three areas in Zambia and Zimbabwe at different stages of malaria control and elimination. These three epidemiological settings had distinct serological profiles reflective of their malaria transmission histories. While there was little correlation between transmission intensity and antibody signals (magnitude or breadth) in adults, there was a clear correlation in children younger than 5 years of age. Antibodies in adults appeared to be durable even in the absence of significant recent transmission, whereas antibodies in children provided a more accurate picture of recent levels of transmission intensity. Seroprevalence studies in children could provide a valuable marker of progress toward malaria elimination.


Kobayashi, T., et al. (2019). Distinct antibody signatures associated with different malaria transmission intensities in Zambia and Zimbabwe. mSphere 4(2) Article e00061-19.

© 2019 the authors. Published under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License. Original published version available at

Kobayashi, T., Jain, A., Liang, L., Obiero, J. M., Hamapumbu, H., Stevenson, J. C., Thuma, P. E., Lupiya, J., Chaponda, M., Mulenga, M., Mamini, E., Mharakurwa, S., Gwanzura, L., Munyati, S., Mutambu, S., Felgner, P., Davies, D. H., & Moss, W. J. (2019). Distinct antibody signatures associated with different malaria transmission intensities in zambia and zimbabwe. MSphere, 4(2), e00061-19, /msphere/4/2/mSphere061-19.atom.

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